Flu Virus Research

The critical part in the research is to understand how influenza virus spread and mutate and is the key to preventing pandemics by discovering preventive, diagnostic and treatment methods.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), influenza viruses that occur in animals can infect humans, and later develop to pandemic strains. Several research areas have been outlined by the WHO relating to the animal/human influenza interface that could have a profound impact on protecting human being.

The Working Group of WHO on Influenza Research at the Animal/Human Interface was setup in 2005 to encourage basic studies into animal influenza viruses, with the aim to find out the cause the viruses can infect people.

ON-GOING STUDIES

Studies are on-going on avian influenza viruses, particularly H5N1. Researchers aim to discover the prevalence of avian influenza viruses in domestic animals and birds, understand the molecular basis of   transmission  of viruses from animals to people, assess the role of migratory birds in the  transmission  of the viruses, and evaluate the human immune response to infection with avian influenza viruses.

Studies are also being done on H1N1, a novel strain which is the causative factor of the current influenza A pandemic and researchers succeeded developed a vaccine which approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

PUTTING VACCINES TO THE TEST

The scientists from the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) play an important role and work in collaboration with medical research institutions worldwide to find better ways to prevent, diagnose and treat seasonal and pandemic influenzas, including influenza A (H1N1).

The trial is being conducted through the NIAID-funded national network of Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs). Safety data will be collected and assessed continuously throughout the trial by an independent safety monitoring committee and investigators.

STUDYING THE NATURE OF THE FLU VIRUS

Other than vaccine research, NIAID scientists are also investigating the basic biology of influenza. The data collected will assist in designing diagnostics that are more accurate and faster, cost-effective and portable. NIAID is also investigating host immune responses to the virus in animal models and people, and studying influenza epidemiology.

For treatment, NIAID supports research being conducted to develop new and effective drug combinations and examine the mechanisms behind emerging drug resistance. This effort is supported by innovative new technologies to design drugs that target specific cellular processes and viral proteins.

Using Serialization

A common problem in programming is moving the program data to another spot, such as a file on disk or another computer. For example, suppose a video game needs to store a saved file on the hard drive. Normally, the developer would have to write a method that takes all the game information and puts it into a format that can be placed on disk. Another method needs to be written to reverse this. The concept of serialization, used in some programming languages, bypasses this.

If a language has serialization libraries, this means that these functions are built in. You can input an object and have built-in language libraries convert the object to data. And of course, you can do the reverse. Instead of having to write code and create your own format for storing program information, you can just have the language do it. This has a wide variety of uses besides the video game save file mentioned in the intro. Suppose you want any program to store user-inputted data. You can simply put that data into a serializable object, that write it to disk. When the program starts up again, use the deserialization methods.

This can also be used for network communications. Consider the problem of writing client and server programs that can communicate with each other. Instead of having to process data, you can just serialize the object and transmit its data over the network. As long as the client and server know what class is being used, this works.

However, not all programming languages can be serialized. Generally, this is only a feature of higher-level languages. .NET has it with the Serializable attribute for a class. For Java, the java.io.Serializable interface is used. Classes that implement this interface can be serialized. Even low-level languages such as C++ have the ability, albeit not in the standard library. The popular Boost C++ library has functions that provide the serialization ability.

However, there are also problems caused by serialization. Many languages do not have backwards compatibility. So if you write a new version of the program and try to use it with existing serialized data, it can fail. Fortunately, some languages do have backwards compatibility features that avoid this drawback.

Serialization is a useful tool that all programmers should know about. It provides an easy way to store program data permanently and transmit it between multiple computers. For languages where serialization libraries are built-in, this is generally very easy.

Ring Worm

Ringworm, also termed tinea corporis, is an infectious skin disease caused by mold-like fungi called Dermatophytes. This disease usually transmits through direct contact with ringworm-infected animals or with humans by sharing combs, clothing or by touching infected areas. Despite its name, there are no worms involved at any phase of the ringworm process. It used to be believed that a worm caused or was a symptom of ringworm, but now people know better. However, the name stuck.

The common symptoms for ringworms are itching, burning, dryness, or circular flaky rashes on the skin. Though, in the case of animals, the primary symptom is temporary hair loss in affected areas, itching or scratchiness in a specific body part.

A primary cause of ringworm is direct contact with infected animals or humans.

Ringworm is common among pets especially dogs and cats, who carry this disease from contaminated soil, kennels or from rodent burrows.

Ringworm thrives in moist conditions and commonly affects the scalp, toes, feet, thighs and genital area. Prevention requires that these areas be kept dry and clean to avoid infection, and pets should have regular veterinary checkups.

Ringworm is easily curable and there are several treatments available. At the first sign, see your doctor who can prescribe mediation to treat and cure ringworm within 2-3 weeks. Ringworm may not show up right away upon the time of contraction. In other words, it can exist as a contagious disease for a time before it can be detected. So do not blame others if their ringworm shows up before yours; you may have been the carrier in the first place!

Who Will Become Wealthy in the Information Age?

As you know, we’re now well and truly in the
Information Age. It began about 10 years ago. In fact,
many economists say it began in 1989, with the Fall of
the Berlin Wall (and the start of the World Wide Web).

To understand who will become wealthy in the
Information Age, first we need to understand how the
Information Age differs from the Industrial Age (born
about 1860, died about 1989).

In fact, let’s get a complete overview and go back to
the Agrarian Age.

In the Agrarian Age, society was basically divided
into two classes: the landowners and the people who
worked on the land (the serfs). If you were a serf,
there wasn’t much you could do about it:
land-ownership passed down through families and you
were stuck with the status you were born into.

When the Industrial Age arrived, everything changed:
it was no longer agriculture that generated most of
the wealth, but manufacturing. Suddenly, land was no
longer the key to wealth. A factory occupied far less
land than a sheep farm or a wheat farm.

With the Industrial Age came a new kind of wealthy
person: the self-made businessman. Wealth no longer
depended on land-ownership and the family you were
born into. Business acumen and factories were creating
a new class of wealthy person. But it still required
enormous capital to build a factory and start a
business.

Then came the World Wide Web (in about 1989) and
globalization. Suddenly, everything changed again.

Factories (or real estate) were no longer necessary to
run a business. Anyone with a website could start a
business. The barriers to wealth that existed in the
Agrarian Age and the Industrial Age were completely
gone. People who could never have dreamed of owning
their own business were making millions from their
kitchen table.

Of course, the Information Revolution didn’t begin
in 1989.

It began in 1444 when Gutenberg invented the printing
press in Mainz, Germany.

But the printing press (newspapers, magazines,
paperbacks) belonged to the Industrial Age, not the
Information Age.

The printing press is a ‘one-to-many’ technology. The
Internet is a ‘many-to-many’ technology. And that was
what changed in 1989.

The Industrial Age was about centralization and
control. The Information Age is about
de-centralization and no control. No government and no
media magnate controls the Internet. This is the
crucial thing to understand about the Information Age.

As we moved from the Agrarian Age through the
Industrial Age to the Information Age, there’s been a
steady collapse of the barriers that kept one section of
society wealthy and the other section poor.

In the Information Age, literally anyone can become
wealthy.

So now that we have a clearer picture of how the
Information Age differs from the Industrial Age, let’s
ask that question again: ‘Who will become wealthy in
the Information Age?’:

(1) People Who are Self-Taught

To explain this better, let’s go back to the Agrarian
Age and the Industrial Age, and the   Transmission  of
Skills.

In the Agrarian Age, skills were passed on from father
to son. If you wanted to learn how to be a blacksmith
you had to be a blacksmith’s son. If you wanted to
learn to be a stone-mason, you had to be the son of a
stone-mason.

With the coming of the Industrial Age, all this
changed. You could go to University and learn whatever
skills you wanted. Knowledge was freely available.

But in the Information Age, the  Transmission  of Skills
is changing once again.

The skills necessary to succeed in the Information Age
are not being learnt from our parents (as in the
Agrarian Age), nor are they being learnt in schools
and colleges (as in the Industrial Age). Children are
teaching their parents computer skills. And many of
the entrepreneurs who start hi-tech Internet companies
have never been to college.

The millionaires (and billionaires) of tomorrow
probably won’t have a college education. They will be
high-school drop-outs, self-taught people.

(2) People with New Ideas.

Again, it’s the people who are able to think outside
of the existing structures who will become wealthy in
the Information Age. Often, it’s just a Simple Idea
that launches people to success in the Information
Age.

Take Sabhir Bhatia, for example – the man who invented
Hotmail. Bhatia was a computer engineer working in
Silicon Valley. He had no previous business
experience, whatsoever.

But one day, while he was driving back from work, a
friend called him on his cell phone and said that he
had an idea: What about starting a free, web-based
email service? Bhatia knew this was the idea he’d been
waiting for. He told his friend to hang up immediately
and ring him at home on a secure line.

Three years later he sold Hotmail to Microsoft for
$400 million.

(3) Writers

The third group who will become wealthy in the
Information Age are Writers.

In the Industrial Age, Writers depended on large
publishing Houses to get published (remember that the
printing press is an Industrial Age technology – it is
centralized and controlled). And the Publishing Houses
took the lion’s share of the profits.

In the Information Age, Writers are doing their own
publishing – and keeping most of the profits
themselves. Indeed, Writers are flourishing on the
Web – mainly through eBooks and Ezine Articles.
But even if you don’t write eBooks or Ezine Articles,
if you own a website, you are a Writer.

Why?

Because the Internet is basically a written medium. It
favors writers, people who are able to communicate
effectively through the written word. Remember, it’s
not the graphics on your website that sell, it’s the
words you use.

In the Information Age, we’re all Writers!

Multi-Functional PACS Workstations

Digitizing medical imaging has changed the way medical facilities and hospitals function. Gone are the days of having to purchase film and costly developing chemicals for film images. With the advent of the DICOM digital image format, medical imaging was made possible. Today many medical offices utilize the flexibility that comes from PACS workstations and web-based PACS.

Storage of digital medical images is of vital importance, especially in light of medical facilities and hospitals needing to stay within HIPPA compliance. A PACS server helps to make this aspect of medical facility administration easier. A server takes up infinitely less space than hard copy film images do, plus it requires no physical maintenance of records. Everyone authorized to have access to the PACS server can set up their workstations to automatically send digital studies directly to the server, or to an offsite server that can be used for disaster recovery as needed, or copy the digital images to a CD or DVD.

With a web-based PACS, your medical facility and imaging center can save money while offering physicians greater flexibility in its use and overall better patient care. Doctors can log onto your local-area network, wide-area network, or from offsite by utilizing a virtual private network. Your medical offices will reduce operating costs because you will not need software for each workstation, and because it is web-based, physicians can access the digital medical images they need day or night in order to provide patients with excellent care.

Since a PACS system can also serve as a digital viewer, you will want to invest in a quality, high-resolution medical-grade PACS monitor. Monitors are available for medical use in a variety of sizes and digital image resolutions suitable for a variety of medical modalities. Ultrasounds, MRI, CT, as well as CR and DR digital x-rays can be viewed with a PACS monitor.

Medical facilities of all types will also save on consultations and referrals when using PACS workstations. Instead of using costly printed digital x-rays, you can send digital images stored in the DICOM format quickly and easily over the World Wide Web. This instantaneous   transmission  of patient medical digital images helps to offer them improved patient care while saving your hospital or medical office money.

PACS distributors and manufacturers can answer many questions you might have concerning PACS workstations; many offer live chat features on their informative websites for even more convenience.

AIDS – What Really is AIDS and How Can it Be Prevented?

AIDS is a disease of the immune system which is caused by HIV which is otherwise known as “human immunodeficiency virus” a diagnosis of HIV can be devastating news for anyone. The condition is prolonged and takes time to weaken the immune system leaving sufferers of the illness susceptible to other illnesses such as the common cold, which due to the weakened immune system of AIDS sufferers can be deadly. An individual suffering from AIDS or HIV is also more susceptible to tumors meaning routine checkups are needed after a diagnosis, leading to a life of hospital appointments.

HIV can be transmitted through full on contact of the mucus membrane, such as mouths, lips and genitals and can also be transmitted through full on contact with an infected bodily fluid. These fluids can be blood, semen, vaginal fluid and breast milk meaning that HIV and AIDS can be passed through to a child throughout pregnancy and throughout breast feeding. The contact of these fluids can happen throughout different activities including anal, vaginal or oral sex, a blood transfusion or the exchange of infected needles, which would commonly be more associated with drug use.

AIDS symptoms often lie dormant until the disease is in its more advanced stages meaning that a diagnosis of AIDS can be even more devastating when the time left is short. Sufferers from AIDS have an increased risk of developing cervical cancer in female sufferers and cancers of the immune system such as Lymphoma. AIDS in its more advanced stage with come with symptoms such as fevers, sweats, swollen glands and weakness. Weight loss is also a common symptom of an AIDS sufferer. AIDS sufferers are also more susceptible to pneumonia as well due to the weakened immune system. AIDS is truly a life wrecking illness for everybody involved.

Since there is no cure for AIDS, the best way to decrease the spread of it and stop others contracting it is with prevention methods. Some of these methods include safe sex, being responsible and using a condom. Sexual relations are one of the main causes of AIDS transmission and a condom could save lives. It is proven that unprotected sex is responsible for the AIDS pandemic all over the world. A male or female condom would suffice.

People working in the health care industry also can do their bit in stopping the transmission of AIDS and HIV by following precautions and using the appropriate safety equipment to keep the illness from spreading. Also, it has now been said that mothers who are suffering from HIV or AIDS should avoid breast feeding their child as to prevent the child from contracting the illness as well. This is what any reasonable parent would do for their child if they knew it could save their life.

Overall, AIDS is a life wrecking disease and it is nothing to be ashamed of. Yet the prevention of it is so simple that people don’t need to be dying every day from this disease. AIDS doesn’t only affect one person; it spreads like a fire and can affect thousands. So think, and use precautions so you don’t become a sufferer too.

Alcohol Education

A multi-billion industry across the world, the sale and marketing of alcohol is a very lucrative one and when enjoyed in moderation and in the right setting, it can be a very enjoyable lubricant to social interaction. However, like anything else in life it is the excess usage and consumption of alcohol that causes the problems of which their severity is only matched by their number.

Part of the problem with trying to raise education and public awareness about the dangers of excessive alcohol consumption is that we live in a very alcohol dominated society and so trying to get people to give up is no easy task. This is oftentimes a direct consequence of an anxiety about being alienated from their peer group.

However, the sheer volume of evidence that is available which clearly demonstrates the very dangerous nature of alcohol is too high and too extensive to casually sweep aside.

Alcohol has a significantly detrimental impact on our overall sexual health and wellbeing on a variety of different levels. First, it reduces our fertility which makes it all the more difficult to conceive a child. In addition, alcohol can also impair a man’s ability to obtain an erection and this impotence can be long term.

The fact that alcohol impairs our judgment and reduces the inhibitions we have is also of grave concern and this is because people will be more likely to find themselves in a situation of sleeping with a person that they may not have otherwise done. Furthermore, there is also the risk that they people who are under the influence of alcohol will not be as cautious as they should be when it comes to ensuring that they have some degree of protection when it comes to sexual intercourse.

This raises the risks of the person acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as HIV, syphilis, chlamydia and genital warts to name but a few. It is important to note that the potential possibility of an unwanted pregnancy, along with all the heartache and emotional disturbance that will undoubtedly bring, must also be weighed in the equation.

Studies have proven that people who habitually consume higher than the recommended safe limits of alcohol will place themselves at a greater degree of risk for the contraction of a stroke. A stroke is the process whereby a clot in the bloodstream takes place in the “pipes” of the body, the arteries. It can also arise where a blood vessel ruptures in the brain.

The reason that alcohol makes this grim reality even more so is due to the fact that it increases the dehydration of the body which in turn, renders the blood flowing around the body, much more viscous and thick. Because the blood is thicker in its nature, this means that is also more sticky which makes it more likely that a clot will form.

By virtue of the fact that alcohol will raise the blood pressure of the body, this also serves to increase the risk of a stroke.

How to Program a Siemens S7-300 Programmable Logic Controller

Do you have a Siemens S7-300 Programmable Logic Controller that you are not familiar with but you need to program it NOW! Following is a quick set of instructions I have put together to help you get started programming a Siemens S7-300 PLC.

After loading the programming software and connecting a Siemens MPI cable between your programming computer and the PLC, open SIMATIC Manager by clicking the icon on the desktop. The STEP 7 Wizard: “New Project” window will open. It is easier to use the Wizard to setup communications with your PLC, but I chose to take the scenic route. I figured I would learn more this way. So, close the STEP 7 Wizard window by clicking Cancel. If there are any other windows or projects open, close them. We want to start with a totally new program.

Create a new project by clicking the new project button on the toolbar in the upper left corner of your screen.

The New Project window opens. Here you will see any existing programs located on your computer. Near the bottom of the window, you will see the Name: input form. Type whatever you want to name your new project and click OK.

A new window will open showing the name of your project at the top. You will also see your project in the window on the left hand side of the screen at the top. Right click your project and choose “Insert New Object”. Choose the device you will be programming. We will be using the SIMATIC 300 Station so choose that selection.

You will now see SIMATIC 300 appear in the right window of your screen. It should be highlighted blue. Click anywhere in the window to make the blue go away. Double click SIMATIC 300 and it will move to the left window and “Hardware” will appear in the right window.

Double click “Hardware” and two (maybe three) new windows will open. On the left will be SIMATIC 300 – (the name of your project). The window on the right will be the catalog of parts.

Look in the right window, the parts catalog, and click the plus sign beside SIMATIC 300.

Click the plus sign beside RACK – 300. Click and drag the Rail onto the left window. You will now see the Slots window appear. This is where we will place our PLC components.

We will first choose our CPU. Looking at the parts catalog, in the SIMATIC 300 tree, choose the CPU that you are using. We are using the CPU – 300 so click the plus sign beside that choice.

Now look at the front top left of your PLC. This is where you will find the PLC model. I will use CPU313C-2 DP as an example since this is the model PLC that I use.

Find this CPU in your parts catalog and click the plus sign. You will now see some part numbers.

Look back at your PLC. Locate the door covering the MPI port. This will be the bottom left side of the PLC. At the bottom of the door you will find the part number. The part number for the PLC I am using as an example is 313-6CF03-0AB0.

Find this part number in the parts catalog. You will notice this is another folder. Open it and you will see V2.0 and V2.6. Look back at the PLC, open the door covering the MPI port, and right above the MPI port you will see V2.6.3.

Go back to the parts catalog and click V2.6. Notice how a slot in the left hand window will highlight green. I believe it will be slot #2. (Slot #1 is reserved for power supplies.) This is where you will drag and drop your CPU. (Notice the software will not let you put the CPU in any other slot but slot #2.)

When you release the mouse button over slot #2, a new window will open, “Properties – PROFIBUS interface”. Click new, a new window opens, click Ok, and then click OK again. We are not setting up a network at this time.

You will now see your CPU and associated hardware listed.

Double click in the Slot that list your DI16/DO16 (Digital Input/Digital Output).

A window with three tabs will open. The first tab will be General, the second tab will be Addresses and the third tab will be Inputs.

Open the tab “Addresses”. We need to change the default addresses. Do this by unchecking the System Default button and changing 124 (or whatever address you have) to 0. Do this for both the Inputs and Outputs.

We now need to change the Node Address. Go back to the window where you double clicked DI16/DO16 and double click in Slot 2, the CPU 313-2DP slot.

The Properties – CPU 313C-2DP window will open.

Look down the window a little over half way and find the Interface area and click on Properties. Another window, “Properties – MPI interface CPU 313-2DP” will open.

Change the address to meet your specific criteria. I know that my laptop, which I am using to program my PLC, is always addressed as 1 and my target PLC is usually addressed as 2. You will probably be the same.

Now click MPI(1) and click OK. Click OK again to close the Properties window.

Save and Compile by clicking the icon located on the left of the toolbar.

Download the hardware configuration to the PLC by clicking the download icon located on the toolbar.

A window titled “Select Target Module” should open. Click OK.

Another window titled “Select Node Address” will open. You should see listed your node address for the PLC you are working with as you configured it in a previous step. If not, click view and click on whatever node address appears and click OK.

Switch back to SIMATIC manager (by clicking the tab on the taskbar).

Click on Options. Choose Set PG/PC Interface. Choose PC Adapter (Auto).

Click Properties. A new window will open, displaying either Automatic Bus Profile Detection or Local Connection. Click Local Connection and choose USB. Now choose Automatic Bus Profile Detection and change the address to 30. You can check your connection now by clicking Start Network Detection. If a new window opens displaying Network Type = MPI, Transmission Rate = 187.5kbps, you have established communications with your S7-300. Click Close. Click OK. Click OK.

It is now time to start programming. Looking at the SIMATIC Manager window, click the plus sign located beside SIMATIC 300(1), click the plus sign beside CPU 313C-2DP, click the plus sign beside S7 Program(1). Now click on Blocks and you will see System data and OB1 appear in the right window on your screen.

Double click on OB1 and a new window will open named Properties – Organization Block

Here you can choose how you want to program, in LAD (ladder), STL (statement list), or FBD (function block diagram). Choose which you want to use and click OK.

Double click OB1 again and the LAD/STL/FBD programming window will open.

You can now start programming.

I have these same instructions with pictures on my website at http://www.saturdayafternoonhobbies.com

Danger of Blood Borne Pathogens Contaminations!

Blood borne pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses or bacterias that are carried in blood or body fluid and can cause disease in people, including, Hepatitis B (HBV), AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Blood borne pathogens can be transmitted through contact with infected human blood and other potentially infectious body fluids.

Occupation Exposure can occur through :

1. Accidental puncture from contaminated needles, broken glass, or other sharps.

2. Contact between broken or damaged skin and infected skin and infected body fluids.

3. Contact between mucous membranes and infected body fluid.

In an emergency situation involving blood or potentially infectious materials, always use Universal Precautions and try to to minimize your exposure by wearing gloves, splash goggles, pocket mouth to mouth resuscitation masks, and other barrier devices.

If you are exposed:

1. Wash the exposed area thoroughly with soap and running water. Use non-abrasive, anti-bacterial soap if possible. If the blood is splashed in the eye or mucous membrane, flush the affected area with running water for at least 15 minutes.

2. Take a blood test and Hepatitis B vaccination.

3. Tell your doctor the source individual. Try to get the individual blood tested as soon as possible for HIV or HBV after consent is obtained.

Anytime there is blood-to-blood contact with infected blood or body fluids, there is slight potential for transmission.

Unbroken skin forms an impervious barrier against blood borne pathogens. However, infected blood can enter your system through:

Open sores, cuts, abrasions, acne, and any sort of damaged skin such as sun burns or blisters, damaged or open wounds.

Always take precaution and treat all human body fluids and items soiled with human body fluids as contaminated. With contaminated, always first thing to do is to disinfect all spills of body fluid and pre-soak all contaminated clothing.

Hands-Only CPR: When and How to Do It

I’m frequently asked if giving breaths has been eliminated from CPR now that the CPR guidelines have been updated. The simple answer is no, the breaths are still instructed in traditional CPR classes. However, there has been a big push, especially by the American Heart Association, to teach a version of CPR without breaths. This approach is often called “hands-only CPR”.

In short, hands-only CPR is fast, deep compressions on a victim’s chest. If someone doesn’t respond to your efforts to wake them, and their breathing is irregular or they aren’t breathing, you push straight down on an adult’s chest at least 2 inches at a rate of at least 100 compressions a minute. This is a skill you need to practice with an instructor on a manikin, so I’m not going to go into further detail on how to perform this skill.

Hands-only CPR has many advantages over traditional CPR: it’s simple to do, it reduces the risk of disease   transmission  while doing CPR, and research shows it’s as effective or more effective when used appropriately.

Hands-only CPR is an acceptable approach when you witness someone suddenly collapse. If this is an adult, it’s probably because of cardiac arrest (a heart attack). The victim still has several minutes of oxygen in their blood because they were breathing moments before they collapsed. The goal of hands-only CPR is to circulate that oxygenated blood throughout their body. By continually compressing their chest, you are literally squeezing blood through their heart so it reaches the brain and organs. Those compressions will buy the victim valuable minutes until emergency medical personnel arrive.

However, hands-only CPR isn’t always the best approach. If the victim has become unconscious and isn’t breathing normally because of an airway emergency, they need CPR with breaths. Asthma, severe allergies, choking, drowning and suffocation are all examples of airway emergencies that can lead to a victim who is unconscious and not breathing normally. Because these victims are lacking oxygen, they need rescue breaths, along with chest compressions.

Children and infants usually have healthy, strong hearts so if they become unconscious, the cause is usually not cardiac related. Most likely they are suffering from an airway emergency. This is why every parent who takes a CPR class should learn to do CPR with breaths. Unless a CPR class says it’s a hand-only class, all American Red Cross and American Heart Association CPR classes will teach you how to give rescue breaths along with compressions.